Digital synchronous meeting tools (e.g., Zoom) have become a fundamental mean for educational activities, including computer-supported collaborative learning. However, the mere availability of technological features does not guarantee utilization amongst learners. Moreover, a reduction in the degree of communication naturalness might harm learning effectiveness. Additionally, digital learning requires effective self-regulation to achieve learning goals. 

These challenges can harm collaborative learning outcomes, yet little research has focused on group processes in digital synchronous meeting tools. 

The proposed study aims to investigate the interaction between social factors and metacognitive factors in synchronous group learning and problem-solving. The participation, social Interaction, performance model illustrates the interaction of social cognitive processes and metacognition in affecting learning and social outcomes. A modified version of the model will be examined in a laboratory-controlled setting, in two studies, investigating which social and instructional factors improve group function and cognitive outcomes in Zoom. 

We hypothesize that experiencing a higher level of social presence and instructor feedback will enhance mood and increase group  cohesion. Such experiences will also result in less biased metacognitive monitoring, and better task performance. Ultimately, this empirical research will validate the proposed model and enable practical guidelines for effectively utilizing synchronous digital environments.